Write a 4 pages paper on who were the two key figures in philosophy at the turn of the century. Alison Wylie is a philosopher of science that dealt with evidential reasoning including various ideas of objectivity while attending to vagaries of a specific inference from limited data. Wylie has made a great contribution to how archeologist will be able to establish knowledge claims regarding social and cultural pasts having a radical and incomplete information base. Through his philosophies, there are ways in which ideas and objectivities can be defended while recognizing explicit partisan interest should not be biased, instead play an important role in inquiries. Roberto Torretti made a great contribution to the philosophy of Immanuel Kent relating to Geometry and Elparaiso del cantor, although much of the work did by Torreti dealt with mathematics and physics. The most recent work he did focus majorly on relativity theory and geometry of the 19th century. in addition, he wrote a comprehensive dictionary on logic as well as the philosophy of science Jesus Mosterin (Boersema) David Charles Stove is a professor who made scathing attacks on issues like Popperian falsification, postmodernism, Marxism and feminism. The stove is a known defender of inductive skepticism and he was able to write various articles for magazines that were non-philosophical. One of his arguments regarding inductive skepticism is that it was fallacious and harmful and it causes modern nervousness, he also criticized biology of evolution stating that it was not as radical as it should be, especially the distortion view of human beings that is proposed by Ultra-Darwinists. Moreover, he also argued about altruism stating the altruism has given some contributions to the growth of cynicism and selfishness among human beings. Charles Darwin is a philosopher who established the theory of evolution in 1859. moreover, like many other philosophers, he also had a tremendous impact concerning the philosophy of America. Though he was not known many outside academics, two thinkers came up and wrote along with his lines of philosophy. The two thinkers are John Fiske (1842-1901) and Chauncey Wright (1830-1875), they both insisted on the importance of understanding morality and consciousness in conjunction to their evolutionary development. therefore, their way of thinking became more liked in the twentieth century. In addition, other 19th century philosophers include the three philosophers who are known as classical pragmatists, of the three Peirce Charles came up with the term pragmatism, the logic of relations and the studying of signs in the 1870s. Despite this, Peirce who is also known to be a mathematician, as well as a scientist, wrote about the importance of philosophy as well as the value theory. James William is another philosopher who did more work than Peirce did. moreover, he popularized pragmatism as a theory that stood for truth and resolved disputes in his work. John Dewey, on the other hand, reached more audience as compared to Peirce and James because he was born many generations after them. Due to his work, he was a known reformer of education who participated in public forums as well as influencing democratic and education works. .